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Papal State

Popes

Conflicts with the Emperor and East (1048–1257) | The wandering popes (1257–1309 | Avignon Papacy (1309–1377)
Western Schism (1378–1417) | Antipopes | Renaissance Popes (1417–1534) | Reformation and Counter-Reformation (1517–1585) | Baroque Papacy (1585–1689) |
During the Age of Revolution (1775–1848) Roman Question (1870–1929) | Vatican City and Modern Papacy (1929–)